The Space Weather is a recently born discipline studying the complexities of Sun-Earth interactions and environment. Following the definition provided by the European Space Agency (ESA):
“Space Weather is the physical and phenomenological state of natural space environments. The associated discipline aims, through observation, monitoring, analysis online casinoand modelling, at understanding and predicting the state of the Sun, the interplanetary and planetary environments, and the solar and non-solar driven perturbations that affect them, and also at forecasting and nowcasting the potential impacts on biological and technological systems”.
while according to the US National Space Weather Program:
“Space Weather studies «the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health”